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Unifying Low-Level and High-Level Music Similarity Measures

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5 Author(s)
Bogdanov, D. ; Music Technol. Group, Univ. Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain ; Serra, J. ; Wack, N. ; Herrera, P.
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Measuring music similarity is essential for multimedia retrieval. For music items, this task can be regarded as obtaining a suitable distance measurement between songs defined on a certain feature space. In this paper, we propose three of such distance measures based on the audio content: first, a low-level measure based on tempo-related description; second, a high-level semantic measure based on the inference of different musical dimensions by support vector machines. These dimensions include genre, culture, moods, instruments, rhythm, and tempo annotations. Third, a hybrid measure which combines the above-mentioned distance measures with two existing low-level measures: a Euclidean distance based on principal component analysis of timbral, temporal, and tonal descriptors, and a timbral distance based on single Gaussian Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) modeling. We evaluate our proposed measures against a number of baseline measures. We do this objectively based on a comprehensive set of music collections, and subjectively based on listeners' ratings. Results show that the proposed methods achieve accuracies comparable to the baseline approaches in the case of the tempo and classifier-based measures. The highest accuracies are obtained by the hybrid distance. Furthermore, the proposed classifier-based approach opens up the possibility to explore distance measures that are based on semantic notions.

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Multimedia, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:13 ,  Issue: 4 )