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A Radio-Frequency Coupling Network for Heating of Citrate-Coated Gold Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy: Design and Analysis

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6 Author(s)
Kruse, D.E. ; Dept. of Biomed. Eng., Univ. of California at Davis, Davis, CA, USA ; Stephens, D.N. ; Lindfors, H.A. ; Ingham, E.S.
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Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are nontoxic, can be functionalized with ligands, and preferentially accumulate in tumors. We have developed a 13.56-MHz RF-electromagnetic field (RFEM) delivery system capable of generating high E-fleld strengths required for noninvasive, noncontact heating of GNPs. The bulk heating and specific heating rates were measured as a function of NP size and concentration. It was found that heating is both size and concentration dependent, with 5 nm particles producing a 50.6 ± 0.2°C temperature rise in 30 s for 25 μg/mL gold (125 W input). The specific heating rate was also size and concentration dependent, with 5 nm particles producing a specific heating rate of 356 ± 78 kW/g gold at 16 μg/mL (125 W input). Furthermore, we demonstrate that cancer cells incubated with GNPs are killed when exposed to 13.56 MHz RF-EM fields. Compared to cells that were not incubated with GNPs, three out of four RF-treated groups showed a significant enhancement of cell death with GNPs (p <; 0.05). GNP-enhanced cell killing appears to require temperatures above 50°C for the experimental parameters used in this study. Transmission electron micrographs show extensive vacuolization with the combination of GNPs and RF treatment.

Published in:

Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:58 ,  Issue: 7 )

Date of Publication:

July 2011

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