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Optimal Design and Real-Time Control for Energy Management in Electric Vehicles

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3 Author(s)
Lei Wang ; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida A&M University—Florida State University (FAMU–FSU) College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL, USA ; Emmanuel G. Collins ; Hui Li

To extend the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cycle life, an active combination of an ultracapacitor (UC) with an energy-dense Li-ion battery is shown as a promising approach for electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). In this paper, the problem of the sizing of the Li-ion battery and UC, as well as the degree of hybridization between the UC power and battery power, is approached from a new perspective, i.e., by solving an optimization problem to minimize fuel consumption. To implement this optimized power sharing in real time, a novel energy management strategy is proposed, which includes battery power reference generation, UC state-of-charge regulation, and forecast control based on the driver commands. Finally, simulations and experiments in which the flywheel + generator + controlled load is used to emulate the vehicle drivetrain are provided to verify the reduced stress on the battery current and the improved fuel economy achieved by the proposed method.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology  (Volume:60 ,  Issue: 4 )