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In this technical note, we consider adaptive control of single input uncertain nonlinear systems in the presence of input saturation and unknown external disturbance. By using backstepping approaches, two new robust adaptive control algorithms are developed by introducing a well defined smooth function and using a Nussbaum function. The Nussbaum function is introduced to compensate for the nonlinear term arising from the input saturation. Unlike some existing control schemes for systems with input saturation, the developed controllers do not require assumptions on the uncertain parameters within a known compact set and a priori knowledge on the bound of the external disturbance. Besides showing global stability, transient performance is also established and can be adjusted by tuning certain design parameters.