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The present situation of rural distribution network fault location is analyzed. The characteristics of fault calling information of distribution network were discussed. On this basis the rural distribution network fault location algorithms theory based on rough set was proposed. The decision table in accordance with distribution network topology was the main tool of the algorithm, using the ability of processing the uncertainty and incomplete information of the rough set, performing the attribute reduction and value reduction. The minimum fault reduction form was derived to ensure objectivity of the rules. Because of the good fault tolerance, it was able to achieve rapid and accurate to locate the fault in the incomplete callings situation. The reduction process of fault decision-making table is realized through programming using VB language. The example show that the algorithm is simple, feasible and effective.