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It is well known that nanoparticles deposited on a heating surface during nanofluid boiling can change the characteristics of the heating surface and increase the critical heat flux (CHF) dramatically. We considered a new approach to investigate the nanoparticle surface effect on CHF enhancement using surfaces modified with artificial micro/nanostructures similar to deposited nanoparticle structures. We examined the effect of the surface wettability and liquid spreading ability on the CHF. The results demonstrated that the CHF enhancement on the modified surfaces was a consequence of both the improved surface wettability and the liquid spreading ability of the artificial micro/nanostructures.