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This study presents an adaptive data window algorithm for fast and accurate signal phasor estimation. The proposed approach is based on weighted least error squares algorithm as well as variable data window estimation technique. An adaptive model is used for the input signal during the two stages. The first stage is considered to accelerate the relay first zone operation. This is done through applying a forgetting factor in the cost function computation, by which the effect of older samples on the estimation is reduced to decrease the initial inertia of the phasor estimator. The second stage starts one cycle after occurrence of the fault. This algorithm is used to improve the estimation accuracy and helps to obtain better estimation for the fault location. To verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, various simulation studies are carried out. The algorithm is also evaluated using some field data recorded from a high-voltage transmission system. The obtained results confirm accurate, fast and reliable response of the proposed algorithm. It not only accelerates the relay operation but also improves the digital filters' capability of reducing the estimation error because of power system frequency deviation, harmonics, inter-harmonics and decaying dc component.