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On-Chip Process Variations Compensation Using an Analog Adaptive Body Bias (A-ABB)

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3 Author(s)
Hassan Mostafa ; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada ; Mohab Anis ; Mohamed Elmasry

An analog adaptive body bias (A-ABB) circuit is proposed in this paper. The A-ABB is used to compensate for die-to-die (D2D) and within-die (WID) parameter variations and accordingly, improves the circuit yield regarding the speed, the dynamic power, and the leakage power. The A-ABB consists of threshold voltage estimation circuits and analog control of the body bias performed by on-chip amplifier circuits. Circuit level simulation results of a circuit block case study, extracted from a real microprocessor critical path, referring to an industrial hardware-calibrated 65-nm CMOS technology transistor model, are demonstrated. This study shows that the proposed A-ABB reduces the standard deviations of the frequency, the dynamic power and the leakage power by factors of 6.6 X, 8.8 X, and 3.3 X, respectively, when both D2D and WID variations are considered. In addition, in this presented case study, initial total yields of 16.8% and 5.2% are improved to 99.9% and 84.1%, respectively. The advantage of the proposed A-ABB is its lower area overhead allowing it to be used at lower granularity level than that of the previously published ABB circuits.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems  (Volume:20 ,  Issue: 4 )