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Analysis of the Reversal Flow Phenomenon of Supercritical Helium Due to AC Losses in the KSTAR PF Magnets at the Low Current

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8 Author(s)
H. J. Lee ; National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea ; Y. M. Park ; Y. Chu ; D. K. Oh
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Superconducting magnets of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) are cooled by supercritical helium with 4.5 K, which was supplied and recovered by the 9 kW of the Helium Refrigerator System (HRS). While current is being charged, the supercritical helium expands to both side of the helium inlet and the outlet of the magnets due to the generated AC losses. To maintain the pressure gradient, both the supply and the return pressures of the HRS are increased at the same time and the differential pressure of the HRS was reduced after the event. However, the pressure rising in the magnets may block the helium flow or create reversal flow of the helium. During unipolar experiment of PF1 magnet up to 2 kA with 1 kA/s of ramp-up rate, the mass flow rate was decreased at the PF1 cooling tube (manifold) in the helium distribution system (HDS), whereas the pressure is increased and the temperature is to be increased or decreased according to compression and expansion of the heated helium in the magnets. For the bipolar experiment of PF1 up to ±2 kA with 1 kA/s ramp-up rate and 2 kA/s ramp-down rate, the conditions in the helium flow were drastically changed, especially the mass flow rate was measured to be maintained at zero for a few second (more than 4 s). This behavior could decisively affect the cryogenic stabilities in the magnet, and may impose a major limit on the long pulse operation of KSTAR. In this paper, we investigated this behavior and analysed by using 1-dimentional thermo-hydraulic code, GANDALF.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity  (Volume:21 ,  Issue: 3 )