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A systematic approach to designing high frequency and high power oscillators using activity condition is introduced. This method finds the best topology to achieve frequencies close to the fmax of the transistors. It also determines the maximum frequency of oscillation for a fixed circuit topology, considering the quality factor of the passive components. Using this technique, in a 0.13 μm CMOS process, we design and implement 121 GHz and 104 GHz fundamental oscillators with the output power of -3.5 dBm and -2.7 dBm, respectively. Next, we introduce a novel triple-push structure to realize 256 GHz and 482 GHz oscillators. The 256 GHz oscillator was implemented in a 0.13 μm CMOS process and the output power of -17 dBm was measured. The 482 GHz oscillator generates -7.9 dBm (0.16 mW) in a 65 nm CMOS process.
Date of Publication: March 2011