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In this paper the asymptotic limits of negative group delay (NGD) phenomena in multi-stage RLC resonator-based circuits are discussed. A NGD-bandwidth-product limit is derived as a function of the number of stages and the out-of-band gain, which is independent of the circuit topology and can include active gain compensation. The limit is verified experimentally at microwave frequencies using a gain-compensated NGD circuit employing a parallel RLC resonator in the feedback path of a high-frequency op-amp. It is shown that, in the asymptotic limit, the NGD-bandwidth-product is proportional to the square root of the number of stages, and also to the square root of the logarithm of the out-of-band gain. The relation between the time-domain transient amplitude and the out-of-band gain is analyzed for finite-duration modulated signals, indicating an exponential increase in transient amplitudes with the square of NGD. Analysis shows that any attempt to increase the NGD of a finite-duration modulating waveform, by cascading more stages, is thwarted by the transients.
Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:58 , Issue: 8 )
Date of Publication: Aug. 2011