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Nano-photonic structures/materials such as surface plasmon and negative-index material as well as quantum dots (QD) and photonic crystals (PCs) are discussed from potentials for new photonic devices and technologies. PC slab waveguides and QDs were developed for key photonic devices such as ultra-small and ultrafast symmetrical Mach-Zehnder (SMZ)-type all-optical switch (PC-SMZ) and an optical flip-flop device (PC-FF). We have studied energy-saving light/matter interaction in a PC waveguide with emphasis on virtual-excitation-based nonlinear effects such as optical Kerr effect. We have also demonstrated a new RGB color filter on Al film with sub-wavelength holes in a large area with a high precision and optical beam-steering device with a wide steering angle.