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LF Ground-Wave Propagation Over Irregular Terrain

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4 Author(s)
Lili Zhou ; Electrical Engineering Department, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, People's Republic of China ; Xiaoli Xi ; Jiangfan Liu ; Ningmei Yu

Traditional methods used to predict the ground-wave field strength at low frequency are not applicable for terrains with serious irregularities because of the analytical approximations. In this paper, the two dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm is applied to calculate the field strength of the low frequency (LF) ground wave propagating over irregular terrains. The propagation characteristics are studied as functions of the mountain's gradient, height, and width, respectively. We also focus on studying the cases with multiple mountains in the path. Moreover, the error of the traditional integral equation method is analyzed by comparisons. The results show that when the mountain's gradient and height are high, additional oscillations in the field strength will appear in front of and in the mountain region due to the wave reflection and scattering. At last, measurements of the Loran-C signals are taken along a real path between Pucheng and Tongchuan in Shaanxi province, China. It is found that most of the measured and FDTD results have good agreements while some still have big errors owing to the model approximation. The FDTD method gets better precision than the integral equation method in the irregular terrain.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation  (Volume:59 ,  Issue: 4 )