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The fault coverage of otherwise efficient memory tests can be dramatically reduced due to the influence of bit line coupling. This paper, analyzes the impact of parasitic bit line coupling and neighborhood coupling data backgrounds on the faulty behavior of SRAMs. It investigates and determines the worst case coupling backgrounds required to induce worst case coupling effects, and validates the analysis through defect injection and circuit simulation of all possible spot defects in the SRAM cell array. The paper clearly demonstrates the inadequacies and limitations of several industrial tests in detecting memory faults in the presence of bit line coupling. Finally, it shows how to detect all single-cell and two-cell faults, both in the absence and in the presence of bit line coupling for any possible spot defect.