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Computational science through applications of high performance computing enables us to explore uncharted fields of science, and has now become indispensable for the development of science and technology of the 21st century. High performance computing systems used for cutting-edge of advanced computational science have reached to petaflops (a million billion calculations per second) performance, and will be targeted to the next generation of exascale systems as a post petascale system. For some years ahead, peta-scale high performance computing systems which have over peta-FLOPS performance, are being built and installed in US, Japan and Europe. In Japan, the next generation supercomputer (NGS) project lead by RIKEN is one of the most ambitious projects in the world to install a 10 petaflop system by 2012.