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Microsatellite primer PCR (SSRP-PCR) technique was used to investigate the genetic diversity in Oedaleus Fieber and provide insights into the geographical origin of Taiyuan population. The proportion of polymorphic loci by SSRP markers indicated that three populations in Oedaleus asiaticus B.-Bienko had remarkable genetic variation (85.7-96.9%) compared with the other three populations in Oedaleus infernalis Saussure (69.4-89.7%). The coefficient of gene differentiation presented that genetic differentiation among populations was very low. The UPGMA dendrogram showed that two populations (JQ and TY) were heterogenous as far as the genetic composition was concerned. The TY population, collected at the Shanxi University, was more similar to the geographically distant population from JQ. SSRP-PCR data and dendrogram implied that the two populations appear to be each other from a part of a large population.