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We present a channel-matched coding method for the compensation of dispersion in coarsely quantized coherent optical communication systems. The approach consists in optimizing a subset of equiprobable input symbols for each channel state, which is robust against dispersion and coarse quantization. This codebook optimization is solved efficiently using an iterative algorithm. The performance of the channel-matched codes is simulated for a 42.8Gbit/s dual-polarization coherent optical fiber system with QPSK modulation and single-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion. Apart from the optimization, the proposed coding method does not increase the encoding/decoding complexity, but yields a considerable coding gain.