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The fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP), which decomposes the complicated objects into simple hierarchical decision-making processes, with the fuzzy pairwise judgment matrix is constructed by the fuzzy logic relation of the factors in each layer. The total fuzzy weights are obtained based on the weight of each layer, which provide the quantitative analysis basis for the decision-making. The volume power of diesel engine is affected by many factors, and the relation of the structures to volume power in diesel engine is not easily constituted by the function. So the FAHP method is applied to study the relation between the main structures of diesel engine and volume power, and the fuzzy evaluation values are obtained, which can provide the criterions to choose structural parameters and optimize the diesel engine to improve volume power.