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Composite right/left-handed (CRLH) substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) and half mode substrate integrated waveguide (HMSIW) leaky-wave structures for antenna applications are proposed and investigated. Their propagation properties and radiation characteristics are studied extensively. Their backfire-to-endfire beam-steering capabilities through frequency scanning are demonstrated and discussed. These metamaterial radiating structures are realized by etching interdigital slots on the waveguide surface and the ground. The slot behaves as a series capacitor as well as a radiator leading to a CRLH leaky-wave application. Four antennas are fabricated, measured, and analyzed, including two balanced CRLH SIW designs characterized by single-side or double-side radiation, and two unbalanced HMSIW designs characterized by different boundary conditions. Antenna parameters such as return loss, radiation patterns, gain, and efficiency are all provided. Measured results are consistent with the simulation. All these proposed antennas possess the advantages of low profile, low cost, and low weight, while they are also showing their own unique features, like high directivity, quasi-omnidirectional radiation, miniaturized size, continuous beam-steering capabilities covering both the backward and forward quadrants, etc., providing much design flexibility for the real applications.
Date of Publication: March 2011