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Continued Moore's Law capacity scaling is threatened by the capabilities and rising costs of optical lithography. Bottom-up synthesis and assembly of nanoscale structures such as nanowires provide an alternative to top-down lithography. However, bottom-up synthesis demands high regularlity (crystals) creating challenges for differentiation and comes with high rates of defects and variation (snowflakes). With suitable architectures---crossbar-based PLAs, memories, and interconnect---and paradigm shifts in our assembly and usage models---stochastic assembly and post-fabrication, component-specific mapping---we can accommodate these requirements. This allows us to exploit the compactness and energy benefits of single-nanometer dimension devices and to extend these structures into the third dimension without depending on top-down lithography to define the smallest feature sizes in the system.