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Diamond has unique properties which make it the ideal material for use in synchrotron instrumentation. X-ray optics made of diamond are almost transparent, they possess strength, and are subject to very low thermal expansion; therefore they will be able to withstand the powerful beams generated by fourth-generation light sources without compromising brilliance. For this reason, several groups are attempting fabrication of refractive lenses and zone plates made of diamond. Lithography and, in general, microfabrication technology, are the ultimate tools for the innovation of synchrotron focusing optics. We propose to combine modern silicon microtechnology with advanced deposition methods to fabricate nanocrystalline-diamond lenses for third- and fourth-generation synchrotron sources. The fabrication method is described here and microfocusing synchrotron tests are illustrated.