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This paper deals with switching detection and recognition of current operating mode in hybrid systems, where the nonlinear modes are represented by a Takagi Sugeno model. A data-based projection method is used to generate a set of signals, named residuals. This method uses only the input/output known signals and the kind of model (linear, bilinear, ...); the precise value of the model parameters is not needed. The residuals may be used as an operating mode indicator under discernability conditions. These conditions are tested on-line. An academic example is provided to illustrate the efficiency of this method.