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Reach accuracy of a distance relay is adversely affected by prefault system conditions, ground fault resistance, shunt capacitance, and mutual coupling of parallel lines. This paper presents a comprehensive adaptive relaying scheme for stand-alone distance protection of parallel transmission lines under a single-line-to-ground fault condition taking into account all of these factors. The proposed adaptive scheme is based on the back-propagation neural network used for training and adaptation. The relay acts as a stand-alone relay, which does not require a separate communication channel for real-time data transmission during faults. The simulation results show significant improvement in the relay selectivity.