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Based on the ratio of the sum of the fault component voltage phasors across the two terminals in the transmission line to the sum of the current phasors through the same line, which is defined as fault component integrated impedance in this paper, a new transmission-line pilot protection principle is proposed. When an external fault occurs, the amplitude of the fault component integrated impedance that reflects the capacitance impedance of the line becomes large; When an internal fault occurs, the amplitude of the fault component integrated impedance which reflects the impedance of the system source and the line, becomes relatively small. Therefore, the fault in the line can be detected according to this characteristic. The criterion is not affected by the current through the capacitance and is not affected by the fault resistance. It can be applied to the line with or without shunt reactor. Also, it can be easily set. Both the simulation results with Electromagnetic Transients Program and dynamic model data verify the validity of the proposed principle.