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The electrical characteristics of a Si nanopillar array surface-textured thin-film solar cell with radial p-n junction are studied in this letter. Several key factors affecting the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the solar cell, e.g., surface recombination velocity, the shell thickness, back surface field, and minority carrier diffusion length, are highlighted. The radial p-n junction provides better PCE than the axial p-n junction at same given conditions (i.e., doping concentration, minority carrier diffusion length, etc.), indicating that the radial p-n junction is preferred in improving the cell's performance.