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Scalable Video Coding(SVC) provides flexible adaptation to bandwidth fluctuations and device capabilities. Thus to preserve such adaptation capabilities many layered access control emerge. In this paper, through analyzing and modeling the bitstream of SVC we transform the scalable bitstream into a hierarchical structure, based on which we propose a secure and efficient hierarchical access control for SVC. It offers high security, low computational complexity and low, especially constant storage complexity. Besides, the dynamic property of the key management including both bitstream layer and user update is well performed.