Skip to Main Content
This paper presents an optimization model for the calculation of the minimum number of phasor measurement units (PMUs) in electrical power networks. The problem constraint is a predefined probability of observability associated with each bus. The mixed-integer programming is used for the proposed optimization and an efficient linearization technique is proposed to convert the nonlinear function representing the probability of observability into a set of linear expressions. The PMU placement is staged in a multi-year planning horizon due to financial and physical constraints. The average probability of observability is maximized at the intermediate planning stages, subject to a limited number of PMU placements, that would satisfy the horizon year schedule. In addition, network expansion scenarios associated with intermediate stages are taken into account. Numerical studies are conducted on a nine-bus system and the IEEE 57-bus system and the results are analyzed.