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Starting from the time-harmonic Maxwell's equations in cylindrical coordinates, we derive and solve the finite-difference (FD) eigenvalue equations for determining vector modes of axially symmetric resonator structures such as disks, rings, spheres and toroids. Contrary to the most existing implementations, our FD scheme is readily adapted for both eigenmode and eigenfrequency calculations. An excellent match of the FD solutions with the analytically calculated mode indices of a microsphere resonator provides a numerical confirmation of the mode-solver accuracy. The comparison of the presented FD technique with the finite-element method highlights the relative strengths of both techniques and advances the FD mode-solver as an important tool for cylindrical resonator design.