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The objectives of this studies were to develop the optimum shoot and ramification number dynamic models for rapeseed (OSRNDMR), and to lay an foundation for Rapeseed Cultivation Simulation - Optimization - Decision Making System (Rape - CSODS), which can design its planting, regulate and control its growth and development, and fulfill its high yield, good quality, high benefits and standard production eventually. The OSRNDMR were developed based on field experiments with 4 cultivars, 6 sowing dates, 2 fertilizing levels and 2 sites from 2002 to 2008 in middle and lower valley of Yangtze River in China, relative data from references of rapeseed researches, and ideas of R/WCSODS (Rice/Wheat Cultivation Simulation - Optimization - Decision Making System). In the same time, the OSRNDMR and its parameters also were assessed, calibrated and tested. Multi-factors such as ramification types, cultivars, and light etc. were response in the models, which make models to have general, objectives, mechanism, and dynamic characteristics, and to be used in different regions, ramification types, cultivars, and yield levels.