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The method on Camellia Oleifera segmentation is discussed in this article. To reach this goal, two major factors need to be considered :(1) the different color between Camellia Oleifera and its background (2) the similar color between Camellia Oleifera and its background. This paper outlines an image processing method for segmenting Camellia Oleifera from its background. To the former, color factor method can be used to segment; while the later, transforming its color model from RGB to HSI, obtaining H value and analyzing its histogram image, looking for its optimal threshold value to segment the image of Camellia Oleifera from its background. However there is much noise because of its complicated background, therefore the structure of 3*3 was used to erode the noise and correspond times of dilation was used to restore its original size. Two real image of Camellia Oleifera were processed by methods mentioned above, experimental results indicate that the method is efficient.