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Semiconductor quantum dot lasers have been extensively studied for applications in future lightwave telecommunications systems. This paper summarizes a tutorial that was presented at the Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2010. The motivation for quantum dots in lasers is outlined, and the desirable effects of three dimensional quantum confinement are described. Methods for forming self-assembled quantum dots and the resultant laser characteristics are presented. The formation of patterned quantum dot lasers and the results of this type of quantum dot laser are outlined. Finally, a novel inverted quantum dot structure or nanopore laser containing 3-D quantization formed from an engineered periodicity is introduced.