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This paper details the transient operation of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) used simultaneously as an active filter and power generator. This study is intended to address the system response to two types of transient phenomena: voltage dips (fast transients) and wind speed variations (slow transients). The system response to voltage dips is governed by the electrical system dynamics and control method and results in the evaluation of the WECS low-voltage ride through capability. The study of the system response to wind speed variations requires a complete mechanical model to be included. Simulation results are presented for a typical WECS, and a discussion is carried out dealing with the generalization of the present work to other configurations.