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A bacteria foraging optimization-based extremum seeking control (ESC) scheme is proposed. In the scheme, the system states are guided to the optimal point by the controller based on the online measurement, and the explicit form of the performance function is not needed. By measuring the performance function value online, a sequence, generated by the bacteria foraging optimization algorithm, steers the regulator that drives the system states approaching to the set point that optimizes the performance. We also present an algorithm that first reshuffles the sequence, and then inserts intermediate states into the sequence, to reduce the regulator gain and oscillation induced by stochastic, population-based searching algorithms. Simulation examples demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed scheme.