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Aiming at the problems that the components in railway rolling stock are complex, highly correlated and difficult to make importance evaluation by traditional method, the importance evaluation index of components in railway rolling stock is established on the basis of the decision of the main factors which influence the importance. A model based on the triangular fuzzy number (TFN) weighted logarithmic least square method is given and corresponding evaluation process is described. The weight of the main factors is determined and the importance analysis on components in railway rolling stock is done with the importance evaluation index. The result indicates that the model can synthesize expert group opinions adequately and combine subjective analysis with quantitative analysis effectively. The calculation program for common use has been developed. It is shown by the instance that this method is convenient and effective. Based on the research the proposed method is given for deciding the concrete maintenance mode according to the components importance.