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Hyperspectral data have the characteristics of massive data and high dimensions, which lead lots of difficulties for spectrum analyzing and processing. Especially spectral feature extraction and analysis are the foundation of further processing. In this paper, we discuss a number of spectral data processing algorithms for spectral feature extraction and analysis. The main contribution is that we combine both Douglas-Pcucker (DP) algorithm and spectrum derivative algorithm to extract spectral absorption characteristics from the rock and mineral spectral data. The experiments indicate effectiveness while using the proposed algorithms for spectral feature extraction.