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Foundation pit engineering is a complex system with multi-tier and multi-parameter. Since the scheme design and detail structure design belong to two different tiers of its optimum design, the foundation pit engineering's optimum design needs to combine these two tiers for co-optimization. Thus, this paper offered mathematical model for optimum design of foundation pit engineering's scheme, detail, and sub-detail. By decomposing foundation pit engineering's optimum design system into a few low-dimensional, sub-system corresponded, relatively independent sub-optimizers and a low-dimensional system optimizer for global co-optimization, it aims not only to construct a decompose-collaborated evolution model for foundation pit engineering based on genetic algorithm but also to design and realize a distributed co-evolution system to improve the convergence speed and global searching ability, and gain the better solutions.