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We propose a new algorithm able to detect the presence and the localization of aliasing in a single digital image. Considering the image in Fourier domain, the fact that two frequencies in aliasing relation contribute to similar parts of the image domain is a suspicious coincidence, that we detect with an a-contrario model. This leads to a localization of the aliasing phenomenon in both spatial and spectral domains, with a detection algorithm that keeps control of the number of false alarms. Experiments on several images show that this new method favorably compares to the state of the art, and opens interesting perspectives in terms of image enhancement.