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The gradation of the asphalt mixture is the critical factor that affects the performance of the pavement. In order to test the gradation of the pavement core sample by using the image processing techniques, a line-scan camera based pavement core sample image acquisition system is built. The hardware of the system mainly contains the image acquisition part, core sample rotation platform and the lighting part and the parameter setting method of the line scan camera are also depict. The software of the system implemented by using the double buffering techniques and the ActiveMIL controls in the Visual Studio C# .NET integrated development environment. Finally, the laser diode is selected as the light source and the line period is set to 300 μs after the comparative analysis to the acquired images. The line-scan camera based pavement core sample image acquisition system could acquire high quality images of the asphalt mixture with low distortion, which is worthy trying in practice.