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Improving the low-order natural frequencies of spiral bevel gear milling machine is a scientific design method to improve its dynamic characteristics, machining accuracy and to prolong work life. The author presents the dynamic testing method of such large-scale equipment by self-developed signal acquisition system. The finite element model was modified and constrains considered numerical model of kinetic theory were built according to the measured dynamic characteristics. On the basis of sensitivity analysis, the author takes elevation of column rear plate etc. as the optimal variables, modifies the boundary conditions and optimizes the dynamic characteristics of machine tool. Results show that the low-order natural frequency of machine tool is increased, vibration amplitude is decreased and the dynamic characteristic of machine tool is improved. This method can be applied to optimization design of the same type of products.