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Overcurrent relays are widely used for protection of power systems, directional ones for transmission side, and nondirectional ones for distribution side. The fault direction may be forward (between relay and grid), or reverse (between relay and source), the normal power flow being from source to the grid. Known directional overcurrent relays rely on a reference voltage phasor for estimating the direction of the fault, requiring both current and voltage sensors. This increases the cost of the relays, prohibiting the utilization of such relays in the distribution side protection and automation, which is going to be a key part in the smart grid initiative. In this paper, a novel current-only directional detection possibility is highlighted.
Date of Publication: June 2011