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The design of a new flash X-ray diagnostic system for the determination of metal vapor concentration in high-current discharges in high-pressure gas is presented. The system consists of a pulsed X-ray source with a hardness of 20-50 keV and an X-ray CCD camera. A high-voltage generator with a pulse duration of 50 ns was used. The new X-ray tube of through-target type was designed. Experimental research on the diagnostic of high-current discharges with a Z-pinch geometry was carried out. The parameters of the experiments are as follows: dJ/dt ~109 -1010 A/s, discharge current amplitudes up to 1 MA, and initial gas pressures of 2.5 kPa-35 MPa. Experimental data on the spatial metal vapor distribution in the discharge gap, provided by electrode erosion, were obtained.