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Wavelength modulation technique (WMT) and wavelength sweep technique (WST) are introduced into intracavity fiber laser for both gas concentration sensing and absorption wavelength detection in this paper. The principle of gas sensing and spectral analysis using WMT and WST was studied. Polynomial fit was adopted to model the system nonlinear characteristic, based on which absorption wavelength can be detected. The system optimization and acetylene gas sensing were both realized, and the absolute detected error can be increased less than 75 ppm. The absorption wavelengths of the detected gas were calculated based on the polynomial fitting results of the system nonlinear. The absorption wavelengths of acetylene were detected using this method, with absolute error no more than 0.445 nm. The system has the ability of realizing both concentration sensing and gas-type recognition.