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This paper analyzes the techno-economic performance of 600 MW coal-fired power plant with and without ammonia-based CO2 capture process, based on the operating data of an existing power plant. The simulation and analysis, with fully consideration of features of existing coal-fired power plants and the integration of CO2 capture process with steam cycle, are made to reveal the thermal and environmental performances of coal-fired power plants with and without CO2 capture. The results show that, when adopting CO2 capture process, the plant efficiency will decrease significantly, and the cost for electricity will increase dramatically. By comparison, the performances of the ammonia-based CO2 capture system are obviously better than that of the amine-based system, which may result from the fact that aqueous ammonia has a lower reaction heat demand for absorbent regenerating.