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To explore cause of collapse of Neolithic Culture around 4000 calendar(cal.) yr BP in the Wensi River Basin, Shandong, China, data of archaeological sites and features of artifacts both Longshan Culture and Yueshi Culture were collected. Based on the GIS software, the spatial and temporal pattern of sites were built. Results reveal that the advanced Shandong Longshan Culture was replaced by the lagged Yueshi Culture around about 4000 cal. yr BP, which mainly reflected at the sites number significant decrease and more lagged pottery production. The cold event occurred around about 4000 cal. yr BP in northern China my played an important role in the collapse of Longshan Culture.