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Based on the principle of thermodynamics and heat and mass transfer, a set of mathematical models on solar water heating system are founded. Solar water heating system (SWHS) is simulated by TRNSYS software to investigate whole-year transient performance of system. Different factors, such as collector area, tank volume, load temperature, shelter, daily hot water consumption pattern, are analyzed in order to attain optimized design parameters for SWHS, which will have a profound significance for improving system performance. The results, referring to evaluating the SWHS, present a reference for design and assemblage of the high-performance SWHS.