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In the economic environment of the world at present, the competition among the enterprises is the competition of the knowledge right. Because the patent is the most concentrated carrier of the knowledge, the efficiency of patent retrieval and utilization is an important way of the enterprises to understand their competitors, track the developed trend of the industrial technique and improve the independent innovation capability and core competitiveness of their own. But at present patent information retrieval systems based on the keyword match can't satisfy the users' demands on accuracy and completeness. So, this paper proposes to establish patent domain ontology, and expand the query based on it to realize semantic retrieval and improve the comprehensiveness and accuracy of the patent information retrieval.