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This clinical study investigates the ability of hemiparetic stroke patients in operating EEG-based motor imagery brain-computer interface (MI-BCI). It also assesses the efficacy in motor improvements on the stroke-affected upper limb using EEG-based MI-BCI with robotic feedback neurorehabilitation compared to robotic rehabilitation that delivers movement therapy. 54 hemiparetic stroke patients with mean age of 51.8 and baseline Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) 14.9 (out of 66, higher = better) were recruited. Results showed that 48 subjects (89%) operated EEG-based MI-BCI better than at chance level, and their ability to operate EEG-based MI-BCI is not correlated to their baseline FMA (r=0.358). Those subjects who gave consent are randomly assigned to each group (N=11 and 14) for 12 1-hour rehabilitation sessions for 4 weeks. Significant gains in FMA scores were observed in both groups at post-rehabilitation (4.5, 6.2; p=0.032, 0.003) and 2-month post-rehabilitation (5.3, 7.3; p=0.020, 0.013), but no significant differences were observed between groups (p=0.512, 0.550). Hence, this study showed evidences that a majority of hemiparetic stroke patients can operate EEG-based MI-BCI, and that EEG-based MI-BCI with robotic feedback neurorehabilitation is effective in restoring upper extremities motor function in stroke.