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The work reported in this paper aimed at developing and testing an automated method to calculate the biodistribution of a specific PET tracer in mouse brain PET/CT images using an MRI-based 3D digital atlas. Surface-based registration strategy and affine transformation estimation were considered. Such an approach allowed overcoming the lack of anatomical information in the inner regions of PET/CT brain scans. Promising results were obtained in one mouse (on two scans) and will be extended to a neuroinflammation mouse model to characterize the pathology and its evolution. Major improvements are expected regarding automation, time computation, robustness and reproducibility of mouse brain segmentation. Due to its generic implementation, this method could be successfully applied to PET/CT brain scans of other species (rat, primate) for which 3D digital atlases are available.