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The interaction of optical radiation with biological tissues causes an increase in the temperature that, depending on its magnitude, can provoke a thermal injury process in the tissue. The establishment of laser irradiation pathological limits constitutes an essential task, as long as it enables to fix and delimit a range of parameters that ensure a safe treatment in laser therapies. These limits can be appropriately described by kinetic models of the damage processes. In this work, we present and compare several models for the study of thermal injury in biological tissues under optical illumination, particularly the Arrhenius thermal damage model and the thermal dosimetry model based on CEM (Cumulative Equivalent Minutes) 43°C. The basic concepts that link the temperature and exposition time with the tissue injury or cellular death are presented, and it will be shown that they enable to establish predictive models for the thermal damage in laser therapies. The results obtained by both models will be compared and discussed, highlighting the main advantages of each one and proposing the most adequate one for optical treatment of biological tissues.