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Utilities are experiencing premature failures of power cables. In order to prevent electrical outages and to save on repair expenses, a nondestructive and nonintrusive condition assessment technique is highly desirable to evaluate the cable status and to predict the remaining life of a cable. In this paper, the capability of joint time-frequency domain reflectometry (JTFDR) as such a condition assessment technique is studied. The health status of three popular insulations in power system cables - cross-linked polyethylene, ethylene propylene rubber, and silicone rubber - is monitored using the JTFDR in a thermal accelerated aging test. The experimental results show that the JTFDR can successfully monitor the aging process of all three insulations. Then, the results from the JTFDR are compared with the results from the elongation at break (EAB); the results show that the JTFDR technique is comparable with the EAB and has a great potential as a nondestructive and nonintrusive condition assessment technique.